Identifying  Engines & Parts

Abbreviations: DEW = Detroit Engine Works.  WMC = Wadsworth Manufacturing Co.  DMCSC = Detroit Motor Car Supply Co.  CEC = Columbia Engine Co.  MSBC = Michigan Steel Boat Co.  DBC = Detroit Boat Co.  SMPC = Standard Motor Parts Co.    CPMC = Caille Perfection Motor Co.  MEC = Middleditch Engine Co.  BGEC = Bessemer Gas Engine Co.  T&MC = Termaat & Monahan Co.  PIW = Petoskey Iron Works.               

The information on this page was collected from original Detroit Engine Works, Detroit Motor Car Supply Co. & related companies manuals, parts bulletins, patents, ad literature, etc... That has been scanned and posted on this website and is believed to be accurate. If you have original literature, documentations, photos that you would like to donate so that other collectors and restores may view this information.    please e-mail me.


There are a number of companies that manufactured engines stationary and marine that appear to look just like or very similar to the DEW two cycle style engines produced back in the early 1900's. The information below will explain what some of the differences are on the engines manufactured or sold by DEW, DMCSC, CEC, MSBC, DBC, CPMC, MEC, BGEC, PIW.  

MSBC & DBC were boat manufactures that used other companies marine engines in their boats mostly DEW engines. MSBC retagged some of the DEW engines with their on MSBC tag.   It appears that DBC did not retag the DEW engines in their boats.

The stationary Middleditch & Bessemer engines have their own unique fuel feeder injector which bolts to the engine with a two hole type flange. The exhaust manifold is square box looking and bolts on with three or four studs. Heavy cast iron box style engine base with hinging door is also unique to the Middleditch & Bessemer engines. These are all differences that makes it easy to identify these two companies engines from the DEW style engines. I don't believe these two companies made two cycle marine engines at least I have never seen one.

 CPMC stationary engines also have unique features such as the tapered ends of the crank shaft with nuts used to hold the flywheels on . Most of the DEW style stationary engines used gib keys to secure the flywheels. Air intake & governor arm on the CPMC engines are cast different then DEW styles. (See photos CPMC section). These unique features make this companies engine easy to distinguish from other DEW style engines.

CPMC marine engines are a little more difficult to identify from the DEW style engine. Some of the Caille marine engines have tapered ends with nuts on the crank shaft and some do not. Advance & retard timer lever has square spring loaded ignition contact. I have never seen this on DEW style engines.

DEW or DMCSC marine engines that are missing the name tag are going to be difficult to figure out what factory the engine was manufactured in and the name tag that was put on the engine originally.  I'm currently starting to look at casting numbers as maybe away to identify the manufacture but have not figured anything out at this point. Over the years there were three different style inspection covers used on the Detroit marine engines. The first early style produced sometime btween (1900-1907) has a small 3/4 inch single pipe thread plug for an inspection hole. The second style inspection cover produced around (1907-1910) has a 4 bolt, 4 inch round cover.  You don't see to many Detroit engines with this second style cover only produced for a couple years. The third style inspection cover was produced between (1910-1920)  has a 4 bolt, 3 inch sqaure inspection cover . Stationary inspection covers were 4 bolt, 3 inch sqaure and stayed the same from about 1907-1920. See photo's below.


1st early style Inspection hole 1900 - 1907

2nd Style Inspection Cover 1907 - 1910

3rd Style Ispection Cover 1910 - 1920

Stationary Inspection Cover


Also if you have a Detroit type stationary engine with two flywheels that has no name tag it will be difficult to figure out who the manufacture is unless it is a Middleditch or Bessemer these engines are fairly easy to identify from a DEW or DMCSC by looking at the fuel injector, exhaust manifold, engine base, cylinder shape, etc..



Peterson Automatic Fuel Feeder-Injector
Designed by John & Frederick Peterson, manufactured by Benjamin J. Middleditch.

The early two piece Automatic fuel feeder-injector (patent # 926,892) was designed by John Peterson and Frederick O. Peterson patented on July 6, 1909 manufactured by Ben J. MiddleDitch for DEW. Application for this patent was filed on Feb 24, 1908 and it appears that this fuel injector was produced a number of years before being patented  in 1909.  A DEW engine catalog dated 1907,1908 shows this same fuel feeder-injector with a ribbed fuel reservoir cap, see photo's below.  Original literature shows that this early style fuel reservoir-injector was used on DEW, DMCSC stationary and Marine engines. At this time I do not have proof that this fuel feeder was used on other brand name engines but there is a good possibility that is was.

Sources = (1906-1908 DEW Catalog), (U.S. Patent # 926,892), (1909 DEW Catalog), (Part List Bulletin No. III Jan 1st 1912), (Parts List Bulletin No. III part 3 Nov 1st 1914), (1915 DEW Catalog), (Information embossed on Peterson fuel feeders).

The early two piece style fuel reservoir/injector first appeared around the 1907-1908 time period and the reservoir caps were changed over the next few years. Three different Style caps were manufactured. (1st) Ribbed no embossing, (2nd) Embossed Patent applied for, (3rd) Embossed patented July 6, 1909. In late 1912 DEW lost their rights to this patent because the Peterson brothers sold their patent to Bessemer Engine Co. This is why DEW had Frederick Barthel design their own one piece fuel feeder patent # 926,892.

(patent # 926,892)
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Barthel Automatic Fuel Feeder- Injector
Manufactured by Detroit Engine Works.

The one piece fuel feeder-Injector (patent # 1,026,425) was designed by Frederick Barthel assignor to Frederick Wadsworth who owned & managed Detroit Engine Works. The patent application for this fuel feeder was filed on Jan 7, 1911 but they were being manufactured by DEW sometime before 1911 and then patented May 14, 1912.  There were 3 different versions of this one piece fuel feeder/Injector produced. All three versions were patented under the same patent number. They are listed below in the order in which they were produced.

1st version 1910-12:
  Flat top with hex cast on the top.   2nd version 1911-12:  Flat top with new improved U shaped pressure/vaccum tube on the top.  3rd version 1911-12: Dome shape top that allowed for internal pressure/vaccum tube, fuel feeder is known as the acorn top.  This 3rd style was the final version which was sold on most of the Detroit engines.

Sources= (U.S,Patent # 1,026,425), (Part List Bulletin No. III Jan 1st 1912), (1913 DMCSC Catalog), (Parts List Bulletin No. III part 3 Nov 1st 1914), (Parts List Bulletin No. III Jan, 1st 1915), (1915 DEW Catalog).

         DEW_Reservoir_Injector_Style_1.jpg (47219 bytes) DEW_12hp_Twin_Ed_Rowland_005.jpg (62035 bytes) Detroit_Fuel_Reservoir_Injector03.JPG (146442 bytes)                              Tube_Top_Fuel_Feeder_Injector.JPG (33532 bytes) Detroit_Tube_Top_Fuel_Reservoir_Injector01.jpg (60272 bytes)             
1st version  1910-12         (patent # 1,026,425)             2nd version  1911-12

Literature shows the first style being used on DEW, DMCSC stationary engines.  I'm sure that all three fuel feeder versions were probably used on other make and/or style engines.

I have literature that shows the second & third version fuel feeder's were used on DEW, DMCSC, CEC stationary engines.


3rd version 1911-12        (patent # 1,026,425)
Acorn_Top_Fuel_Feeder_Injector.JPG (96266 bytes) DEW_6hp_Ed_Rowland_002s.jpg (116792 bytes) Acorn_Fuel_Reservoir_Injector01.JPG (37857 bytes) Detroit_Fuel_Injector_01.JPG (19413 bytes) DEW_Injector_Reservoir_03As.jpg (112989 bytes) Detroit_Fuel_Injector_03.JPG (15885 bytes)
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This 3rd version fuel feeder had a new improved top cap which was rounded and set higher allowing for the 1/4" pressure/vaccum tube inside the reservoir to set higher above the fuel level. The new cap is referred to by many collectors as the acorn top fuel feeder. This modification was also introduced around the 1911-1912 time period and was the last fuel feeder produced by DEW until the company went out of business in 1920. Literature shows that this style fuel feeder injector was used on all DEW, DMCSC stationary engines with two flywheels and on some of the DEW, DMCSC single flywheel stationary and marine engines.



Detroit natural gas air intake valve.

Originally sold as an accessory from the Detroit factory. Used as an alternate to the fuel reservoir/injector.



Some of the 3rd style fuel feeders had a primer cup valve that was mounted to the top of the acorn cap or the side of the reservoir, This allowed you to prime the fuel reservoir after the engine had set for a period of time and the fuel had evaporated or seeped down to the fuel tank. This primer cup valve would save you the trouble of having to find a wrench and remove the reservoir cap every time. Injector tubes are made from standard 1/8" copper tubing with 1/16" inner
diameter. Injector tube should adjusted as close to piston with out hitting it.  Length of injector tube will vary depending on what horse power engine you have.

DMCSandow02.jpg (62862 bytes)





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-Marvel carburetor used on DEW, DMCSC marine engines.

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This carburetor was built by the PlanHard Manufacturing Co. Used on DEW, DMCSC, CEC marine engines.

Krice photo's donated by the guys from  website. 

Krice07.jpg (56059 bytes) Krice08.jpg (75340 bytes) Krice06.jpg (49958 bytes) Krice10.jpg (53821 bytes) Krice01.jpg (63010 bytes) Krice02.jpg (64005 bytes) DetroitMarine_01.JPG (83468 bytes)
Krice Float type carburetor Literature shows this carb was used on DEW, DMCSC, CEC marine engines.


Schebler Model "D"  float type carburetor. 
SCHEBLER_01.jpg (61546 bytes) SCHEBLER_02.jpg (86384 bytes) SCHEBLER_03.jpg (88829 bytes)
Schebler_04.JPG (38902 bytes) Schebler_05.JPG (39589 bytes) 
literature shows that some DEW,DMCSC, CEC, marine engines used this type of carb.



lumix.1.jpg (17174 bytes)       lumix.2.jpg (17480 bytes)       lumix.3.jpg (16213 bytes)       lumix.4.jpg (39900 bytes)
Lunkenhiemer 3/4 inch L.H.  mixer with adjustable throttle arm on top and floating valve.
Literature shows that this mixer was used on some DEW marine engines.


          DMCSC Throttling Valve         
DMC_Sandow_Throttle_Valve_01.JPG (130584 bytes)  DMC_Sandow_Throttle_Valve_02.JPG (108556 bytes)


Lavigne Mfg. Co. also made a mixer that looks real close to the ones used on the Detroit engines.

Williams_Throttle_Valve_01.JPG (33373 bytes)  DMCSandowMarine05.jpg (14425 bytes)  Williams_Mixer_01.JPG (10825 bytes)  Williams_Mixer_02.JPG (8920 bytes)
Williams Generator or Mixer, also known as Automatic Throttling Valve used on DEW & DMCSC engines.


DMC_Air_Intake_Valve_01.JPG (112774 bytes) DMC_Air_Intake_Valve_02.JPG (111298 bytes) DMC_Air_Intake_Valve_03.JPG (106693 bytes) DMC_Air_Intake_Valve_04.JPG (84953 bytes) DMC_Air_Intake_Valve_05.JPG (107700 bytes)
DMCSC engine non-return air intake valve used in conjunction with DEW fuel injector.
Photos of non-return valve donated by the guys from  website.



Water Injection

     In the early 1900's most engine companies who manufactured kerosene type engines used water injection. The   literature below is from the Detroit Motor Car Supply Company catalog about their Sandow engine explaining why they use water injection. DEW, DMCSC, CEC all used water injection on their larger engines.


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Drip Feed Lubricator's

The early style DEW engines first came with two single drip lubricators with tappered tops as seen in the photo below. One drip oiler lubricated the cylinder, piston & upper connecting rod bearing. Second drip oiler lubricated the lower connecting rod bearing. 

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Some time later a single lubricator with two drip lines was introduced that did the same work of the two single drip oilers but with only one oil reservoir. Some antique engine enthusiast believe that the lubricators on the Detroit engines are sealed units and oil is injected into the engine by pressure from the crankcase. I have found no original literature or avertisements to support this theory. I have original Detroit manuals, catalogs, Sales literature, advetisements and none of them say anything about the Detroit having a pressure feed oiling system and believe me if it did have this they would be using it in their advertising to try and boost thier sales. The manuals states that the lubrication system is drip feed and grease cups for the main bearings. These types of oilers have a check ball below each drip sight glass to keep air pressure and oil from blowing back into the oil reservoir. Manuals do state that the lower connecting rod bearing is positive feed lubrication but not from air pressure but from centrifical force using a oil slinger ring mounted on the crankshaft. See photos below. 

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Made by the Lavigne Manufacturing Company Detroit, Michigan.

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Centrifical oil slinger for helping to lubricate lower connecting rod bearing.

DEW & Sandow Stationary Governor Linkages

Early Style Governor Linkage 1907-1912




LateStyle Governor Linkage 1913-1920



Magneto's, Alternator's, Buzz coil's

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         Comet_Magneto_Generator_002.JPG (66345 bytes)

In the factory DEW parts catalog they call this a Comet Magneto sold for $9.00 new. This is actually a small alternator with a rubber friction wheel that you would drive against the flywheel, some times called a battery saver. You would start the engine using a dry cell battery and buzz coil. Once the engine was running good and steady you would flip a switch disconnecting the battery and connecting the alternator. Alternator would now supply alternating current (AC voltage) to the buzz coil. The buzz coil contact points last much longer using (AC) alternating current rather then (DC) direct current. For more information on ignition see DEW wiring diagram above.


Kingston Magneto
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Kingston magneto could be purchased as option for the big twin cylinder Detroit engines.


Stationary Buzz Coil

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This is an identical reproduction of the old Detroit buzz coils, even has the electronics potted in tar just like the old original buzz coils.  John Regan makes these Detroit style buzz coils & also reproduces the model T ford style buzz coils. See website link for more info.


Marine & Stationary Engine Info

Research shows that DEW, DMCSC, CEC  marine engines were offered in many different configurations over the years. An assortment of carburetors and mixers manufactured by different companies, DEW, Schebler, Lunkenheimer,  Essex, Krice, Williams, Lavigne are just a few that are known to have been used.  Ben J. Middleditch  manufactured the first fuel injection systems that were used on some of these marine engines. Then DEW manufactured three different styles of fuel feeder-injectors in the proceeding years after. 

Different configurations of castings were used on the crank case, cylinders, exhaust manifolds, mufflers, etc..through out the years.  Two or three different styles of timing controllers were offered. A few different versions of condenser exhaust manifolds were produced.  Original literature shows that DEW single cylinder (marine engines) were manufactured with three or four large holes in the flywheel or a combination of large holes and small holes. There were a lot of engine companies including DEW, DMCSC, CEC, CPMC, MSBC, DBC, Termaat & Monahan Co., Etc.... that had different combinations and quantity of holes in the flywheels.  Trying to identify the different brand of marine engines by how many or what size holes are in the flywheel simply does not work. Collectors have also tried to use the location of greasers or grease cups on the end of the crankshaft as a means to identify certain engines, again this does not work. You will see examples of engines on original literature and photos on this website that will prove that all these theories do not work. 
The smaller DEW marine engines used a gib key to secure the flywheel. The larger DEW marine engines used a tapered end crankshaft with nuts to secure the flywheel.  Below is the patent for the condenser exhaust manifold for the Termatt & Monahan engine. This same basic design was used on many of the Detroit marine engines. To all the marine engine collectors who are restoring one these engines with this type of condenser manifold please be careful. The pipe that goes down the middle of the condenser has two or three small pin holes to allow a very small amount of water into the manifold. Some of the water will condense and go out with the exhaust fumes. Excess water will go out of the drain at the bottom. During restoration you should take this manifold off the engine and make sure the pipe inside the manifold is not plugged up with rust or carbon. Also make sure the pipe does not have any rusted through holes or cracks. If to much water is allowed in the condenser manifold and the water level becomes higher then the exhaust port then water can enter into the cylinder and there could be an explosion.  If you are running the engine at a very slow idle like at a show you may not damage anything. However if you have the engine in a boat and are running at a higher rpm there could be an explosion from liquid lock.  The later model Detroit marine engines have a needle valve on the top of the manifold where you can control the amount of water that goes in.


DEW, DMCSC, CEC engines manufactured before 1912 had poured main bearings and lower con rod bearing.
All engines manufactured in 1912 and after had interchangeable main bearings and lower con rod bearing.  

* The 8hp was the only stationary engine that had bolt on internal counter balance weights for the crankshaft.*

Source = (Parts List Bulletin No. 111 Jan 1st 1912), (Parts List Bulletin No. 300 March 1st 1916).

DEW & DMCSC (Stationary Engines with two flywheels) Some time between 1913 and 1914 a new cylinder style change was made on 5 hp all the way up to 20 hp.  Exhaust port changed from direct pipe thread into the cylinder to bolt on flange type manifold elbow. The bottom water inlet also changed to bolt on style flange. The position of water port on top of cylinder changed by 90 degree's. The place were the oil line screwed into the cylinder moved from the left side of the cylinder to the right side. The (Lower Con Rod) oil line that screwed into the crank case on the right was moved to the left side. The 4hp and under engines still used the old style cylinders that did not have the bolt on flange for the exhaust and lower water inlet. 
Sources = (Parts List Bulletin No. III Jan 1st 1912), (Parts List Bulletin No. III part 3 Nov 1st 1914).

 DEW & DMCSC (Stationary Engines) Between 1913 and 1914 new cheaper governor linkages was introduced with stamped out of flat metal that replaced the heavy cast metal linkages. 
Sources = (Parts List Bulletin No. III Jan 1st 1912), (Parts List Bulletin No. III part 3 Nov 1st 1914).

Single drip oiler's or double drip oiler's offered on all single cylinder engines. These oilers came with check valves built into them, This kept the crank case pressure from blowing the oil in the line back into the oiler. One oil line lubricated the big end of the connecting rod. The second oil line lubricated the piston and the small end of the connecting rod.     

The oil system on the single cylinder engines are drip feed not pressure feed from the crank.  Although a small amount of vacuum from the crank case does help pull the oil into the engine. Check balls in the oiler prevent pressure from the crank case to enter the oiler. The lower end connecting rod and crank journal is force feed (positively feed) by centrifugal ring oiler that is connected to the crank shaft but the amount of oil that is force feed is still regulated by the drip oiler. The diagram and photo below shows how the oil gets to the centrifugal ring oiler which is a disk with a curled up outer ridge, the oil drips into the outer ridge and is centrifugally forced into a hole that leads to the crank journal for the connecting rod and bearing.

Centrifugal_Oil_Ring.JPG (91772 bytes)  DEW_3hp_CrankShaft_Oil_Ring_04.JPG (48852 bytes)

Some of the larger two cylinder DEW engines did have pressure feed oil systems. A oil pump that was belted to the crankshaft with multiple oil lines through out the engine.  Sources = (1909 DEW Catalog), (Parts List Bulletin No. III Jan 1st 1912), (Part List Bulletin No. III part 3 Nov 1st 1914), (1915 DEW Catalog).

  Original DEW literature states that Serial numbers were stamped in at least one of the following places. Top of the cylinder, Outer diameter of flywheel, Flywheel hub face, End of crankshaft, Engine name plate. Serial numbers were stamped in with steel stamps. Embossed or raised numbers and letters are casting numbers not a serial number. I have no information on dating the year of a engine by serial numbers. I don't believe anyone has this information at this time, Sorry.... Although your engine can be dated as being a early, mid or late model by the type of fuel feeder-injector, governor controls and in some cases exhaust manifold.
Sources = (Part List Bulletin No. III Jan 1st 1912), (Parts List Bulletin No. III part 3 Nov 1st 1914).

DMCSC (Sandow) hopper cooled engines were first introduced in 1911 sizes 2.5, 4, 6 hp. We know these style engines were still being produced in 1914.  In 1911-1912 the new style one piece acorn cap fuel feeder-injector was introduced. 
Sources = (1913 DMCSC catalog), (1914 DMCSC catalog).


         Below are some photo's of various engine tags that might be of interest to some of you collectors.

Detroit_Tag03.jpg (43377 bytes)  Ziggy06.jpg (78183 bytes)  PeterDMCtag.jpg (39466 bytes)  DEWMarine_tag_17.jpg (7001 bytes)  Michigan_Steel_Boat_Co._tag.JPG (53813 bytes)
Sandow_2_Danny_Shields.JPG (247011 bytes)  SandowMarine05.jpg (48120 bytes)  Caille_Jim_McCracken10.JPG (156065 bytes)  Bessemer2hp03.JPG (26479 bytes)  MichiganSteelBoat03.jpg (19532 bytes)  DEW_Marine_09_JC.Davis.JPG (70747 bytes) Sandow_2.5hp_William_Schaller_06.JPG (325564 bytes) 

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